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The principle and application of laser processing

The laser is another major invention of mankind since the 20th century, following atomic energy, computers, and semiconductors. It is called the "fastest knife", "the most accurate ruler," and "the brightest light."

The original Chinese name of the laser was called "laser". The principle of the laser was discovered by the famous American physicist Einstein as early as 1916. In 1964, according to the famous Chinese scientist Qian Xuesen's suggestion, "light stimulated radiation" was renamed "laser".

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Lasers are widely used, mainly including: laser marking, laser welding, laser cutting, optical fiber communication, laser spectroscopy, laser ranging, lidar, laser weapons, laser records, laser pointers, laser correction, laser beauty, laser scanning , Laser mosquito killer, etc.

Laser processing is the most commonly used application of laser systems. According to the mechanism of the interaction between the laser beam and the material, laser processing can be roughly divided into laser thermal processing and photochemical reaction processing.

Laser thermal processing refers to the use of the thermal effect generated by the laser beam projected onto the surface of the material to complete the processing process, including laser welding, laser cutting, surface modification, laser marking, laser drilling and micro-machining, etc .;

Photochemical reaction processing refers to the process of irradiating a laser beam to an object and initiating or controlling the photochemical reaction by means of high-density and high-energy photons. Including photochemical deposition, stereolithography, laser etching, etc.

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As an advanced manufacturing technology, laser processing has been widely used in important sectors of the national economy such as footwear, leather goods, electronics, paper products, electrical appliances, plastics, aviation, metallurgy, packaging machinery manufacturing, etc., to improve product quality, labor productivity, automation, pollution-free, Reducing material consumption plays an increasingly important role.

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Because the laser has four characteristics of high brightness, high directivity, high monochromaticity and high coherence, it brings some characteristics that laser processing does not have. Because it is non-contact processing, there is no direct impact on the workpiece, so there is no mechanical deformation; there is no "tool" wear during laser processing, and no "cutting force" acts on the workpiece; during laser processing, the laser beam energy density is high and the processing speed Fast and local processing, no or minimal impact on non-laser irradiated parts. Therefore, the heat affected area is small, the thermal deformation of the workpiece is small, and the subsequent processing is minimal; because the laser beam is easy to guide, focus, and realize the direction change, it is easy to cooperate with the CNC system to process complex workpieces, so it is an extremely flexible processing method ; High production efficiency, stable and reliable processing quality, good economic and social benefits.